In this work, we analyzed the effects of resveratrol (an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecule) on behavioral alterations of the VPA model of autism, as well as the levels of circulating miRNA. We also evaluated the same set of miRNA in autistic patients. Rats of the VPA model of autism showed reduced total reciprocal social interaction, prevented by prenatal treatment with resveratrol (RSV). The levels of miR134–5p and miR138–5p increased in autistic patients. Interestingly, miR134–5p is also upregulated in animals of the VPA model, which is prevented by RSV.