Prenatal exposition to valproic acid diminished aquaporin 1 in the choroid plexus, in the primary somatosensory area, in the amygdala region, and in the medial prefrontal cortex, reduced aquaporin 4 in medial prefrontal cortex and increased aquaporin 4 levels in primary somatosensory area (with resveratrol prevention). Valproic acid exposition also increased the number of astrocytes and GFAP fluorescence in both primary somatosensory area and medial prefrontal cortex. In medial prefrontal cortex, resveratrol prevented the increased fluorescence. Finally, there was an effect of resveratrol per se on the number of astrocytes and GFAP fluorescence in the amygdala region and in the hippocampus. Thus, this work demonstrates significant changes in blood–brain barrier permeability, edema formation, distribution of aquaporin 1 and 4, in addition to astrocytes profile in the animal model of autism, as well as the use of resveratrol as a tool to investigate the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder.